Central Railroad of Peru

Central Railroad of Peru
The Central Railroad of Peru can be considered among the most notable railways in the world, due to the technical difficulties overcome and the high level that it reaches by ascending the Andes mountain range. It should be considered without a doubt the one that starts from Callao above. to the picturesque city of Huancayo , in the central Andean region of Peru.
It is the only train in South America , among those with a standard gauge of 1,435 m , which reaches a height above sea level of approximately 4,781 meters above sea level in the Galera tunnel. The highest point is La Cima, 4,835 meters above sea level, which is located in the mining branch of Tíclio a Morococha . This point exceeds in 17 m to Collahuasi , the highest place in the mining railroad in Antofagasta , Chile , with a 1 m gauge that was 4,818 meters above sea level. So for many years this was the railway that reached the highest altitude above sea level, only recently was it surpassed by the Qinghai-Tibet Railway which reaches a height of 5,072 meters above sea level.
To reach such height the train crosses 58 bridges, 69 tunnels, and around 6 zigzags. Using almost 8 h to travel the distance of 172 km separating Callao from Galera.
The line traces the course of the Rímac River and its tributaries to Chinchán, about 7 km beyond Casapalca, an important stop located in the western foothills of the Andean mountain range, destined for the concentration of minerals and continues to ascend to the summit of the Andes. it goes through the Galera tunnel. From there it descends to the opposite side following the course of the Yauli River, which belongs to the Atlantic slope, to La Oroya . Then the course of the Mantaro river continues and crosses it and arrives at the Tambo station , passing through the center of the valley and through very beautiful towns such as Jauja, Apata, Matahuasi, Concepción and finally Huancayo.
Background to the Central Railroad of Peru
In 1851 the Polish engineer Ernest Malinowski , voluntarily exiled in Peru for political reasons in his country then occupied by Germany and Russia , proposed extending the Lima - Callao railway opened that year to the valley of Jauja .
The government appointed a commission composed of Messrs. Felipe Barreda , Mariano Felipe Paz Soldán and Manuel Pardo to report in detail on the project. This commission presented the plan that should be followed in this regard. Approved the proposal by these gentlemen joined the engineer Malinowski to the commission, who proceeded to carry out the first studies.
The Congress approved through legislation the proposals on the railroad that the government had proposed and guaranteed a 6% interest on the capital that was invested. In turn, a new commission was appointed to recognize the construction alternatives. This second commission presented a detailed report of the four possible routes that it had explored and evaluated:
  • Through the Rímac river ravine, departing from Lima and passing through Matucana, San Mateo and Tarma.
  • Through the Chillón River, Lima, Caballero, Yangas, Obrajillo, Casachanca and Carhuacancha
  • Quebrada del río Chancay, Lima, Chancay, Macas, Huamantanga, Huaillay and Cerro de Pasco
  • Quebrada del Río Lurín, Lima, Lurín, Sisicaya, Tupicocha, San Damián, Tuctucocha, Pumacocha, Oroya, Tarma and Jauja.
According to the report, the construction was possible but difficult for the Rímac ravine; almost impossible for Chillon's; Impossible for Chancay and very easy for Lurín. This last option was chosen, whose study and design was entrusted to the engineer Gerrit Backus, reputed as one of the most capable professionals in the study and construction of railways. This third task was done until March 1866 when he stopped his work due to the war with Spain. In 1868 Don Diego Masias called Henry Meiggs from Chile , an American and contractor in New Jersey and also in Chile .
The audacious Meiggs, after many efforts, presented himself to the government on September 21 of the year indicated, proposing to him to do the studies and build a railroad between Lima and Jauja. It is said that Meiggs said this phrase to the government "I will place rails where the flames walk ". Approved the studies and the construction budget that amounted to 27 million pesos, the proposal of Meiggs was accepted, with the obligation that he had to leave the work built in the span of 6 years and to receive in payment special bonds, with an interest 6% annual and amortization of 2% ten years after issued.
The contract concluded between the Government of Peru and Meiggs on December 18, 1869 was signed by public deed on December 23 , 1869 . The first article stated:
1 .- D. ​​Enrique Meiggs, his heirs, executors or legitimate representatives, is obliged to build the Trasandino Central Railroad section, between Callao and Lima to La Oroya; subject to the plan and drawings made by the engineer in chief D. Ernesto Malinowski, with the intervention of State Engineer Pedro Marzo, which have already been approved and will be filed and sealed in the Ministry of the Branch.
  • Railways Peru, collection of laws, decrees, contracts and other documents relating to railways, of Peru, made by D. Enrique Meiggs 1
  • The works began on January 1, 1870 with a sumptuous ceremony in which the first stone was placed in the current station of Monserrate in Lima, under the direction of engineer Malinowski head of the Technical Corps.
Construction of the Central Railroad of Peru
To facilitate the construction of the main line, a division was carried out by sections, which were:
  • Lima - Callao - Cocachacra
  • Cocachacra - San Bartolomé - San Jerónimo de Surco
  • San Jerónimo de Surco - Matucana
  • Matucana - Parac
  • Parac - San Mateo - Río Blanco
  • White River - Galera
  • Galera - La Oroya
  • Meiggs could only build the railway to Chicla, 141 km from Callao . He stumbled upon very serious difficulties in paying for the work done.
  • The conclusion to La Oroya was made as a consequence of the handing over of all the railroads that the State built to the bondholders of the Peruvian foreign debt, after the war with Chile.
The line was delivered to public traffic to the whereabouts of Cocachacra the 9 of February of 1871 , to San Bartolome in September of that year and even Chicla in May 1878 , this is less than a year after the beginning of the War of 1879 and when Meiggs had already passed away. As a result of the conflict the construction was paralyzed until 1890 . In that year the holders of the bonds assumed the rights and obligations of Meiggs and organized since then the Peruvian Corporation successor of the holders. The line arrived at Casapalca on July 12 , 1892 and until La Oroya on January 10 ,1893 .
Between the great works of this railroad they are the viaduct of Verrugas or Carrión, of 175 ms of length and 80 of altitude and the tunnel of Galera that has 1,177 ms of length. Also the Balta tunnel that has a helical shape located in the area of Sacrape and 1,375 meters located at km 94 and delays the train in passing it from 4 to 5 min.
La Oroya-Jauja-Huancayo
Through an additional contract called an agreement between the government and the Peruvian Corporation in 1907 , this company took over the construction of the section between La Oroya and Huancayo already begun in 1905 by the State with an extension of 20 km to Huari . It was opened to traffic to Huancayo on September 8 , 1908 . It had taken more than 38 years to complete the Central Railroad.
Construction Companies and Operators Central Railroad of Peru
The Peruvian Corporation Company
Due to the debt obtained by the Peruvian State, during the construction of this road network, based on article N ° 26 of said contract, arises on March 20 , 1890 , the company The Peruvian Corporation Ltd , whose job was also to follow with the construction of the 160km of missing railway line. Two weeks later it was registered in the London Stock Exchange . This transaction was completed because the heirs of Henry Meiggs , his sons JG Meiggs , HH Meiggs and Alejandro R. Robertson , sold their share of the central railroad to the new company, and of the silver mines in Cerro de Pasco , an agreement signed on June 12 , two days later the contract for the construction of the road to La Oroya is signed . In 1891 , the Peruvian Corporation decided to administer all railroads and convert them into subsidiaries by dividing the shares among themselves. Seven companies emerged, of which five were controlled by subsidiary companies. The remaining two were signed by third parties because there were still contracts with the state and others in charge. As expected in the face of the economic crisis that the country was already living in those years after the War with Chile , there were problems in fulfilling the contract. In 1893payments were not made as agreed, with Parliament intending to suspend annual payments to creditors. Definitely the Peruvian Corporation, was not able to get the income by other means for the construction of other sections, no agreement would be reached on both sides until 1899 .
In the new twentieth century , a new negotiation of conditions was reached after 1904 . But it is the 22 as June as 1907 could be signed the new contract the same as stipulated
  • The Peruvian Corporation will accept all expenses for the new lines planned to an extension of approximately 300km .
  • The railway company will reimburse the State for all the expenses that had occurred due to the partial construction of said lines .
  • The use of the railroads by the company will be extended for 17 more years, under the condition that the treasury begin with the payment of the 80,000 Sterling Pounds. This amount must be collected from the sugar tax.
  • Definitely the use of the railroads in charge of the Peruvian Corporation did not last until 1927 , if it did not last until March 1 , 1973.
The National Railway Company "ENAFER"
During the military government of President Juan Velasco Alvarado who took office on October 3 , 1968 , he undertook a nationalization of several companies. In the case of the Peruvian railways it would not be the exception, for this he hired the French company Sofresrail, to make a study on the profitability of the country's railways. The 2 of April of 1971 all railways in private hands that encotraban expropriate, including the Peruvian Corporation , whose headquarters was in Canada, blaming this company for the systematic ruin of the rail service for its low investments in recent years. According to the Minister of Transport and Communications of the time, General Anibal Meza Cuadra, "this is not a confiscation, nor nationalization, nor expropriation is a simple embargo to a delinquent debtor according to the interests of the people." Thus the 1 of December of 1972 the created Empresa Nacional de Ferrocarriles , better known as ENAFER Peru, which met all the railways, except the line La Oroya - Cerro de Pasco because it was very profitable and until then belonged to a US company. Then it would pass to CENTROMIN Peru, the Mining Company of the Center of Peru. ENAFER recently entered into operation on January 1 , 1973 , operating the lines:
In July of 1973 , with international credit could acquire new locomotives, rolling stock, rails and other implements:
  • In the United States , spare parts were purchased for a total of $ /. 12.6 million dollars.
  • In Romania , 300 freight cars and 32 passenger cars
  • In Canada , 12,700 t of rails.
  • In Japan , 25 diesel locomotives, 36 wagons for mineral transport, and 40 tank wagons.
The company was restructured in 1976 through a commission for its reorganization where only railroad workers participate. In 1979 , the congress approved loans for the modernization of the national rail system. In 1981, under the government of Fernando Belaúnde Terry , he converted the company into anonymous and was conducted by the Ministry of Transport and Communications of Peru. By then the line mileage was 1,691. During the 1980s until the early 1990s , rail activity has been in decline due to the high transportation rate, terrorismthat spread in the country, roads and transit hours. In 1990 it was decided to cancel passenger service and only cargo service predominated. The service is declared in emergency and privatization is called in 1991 , with the registration in the public records of all its real estate including a self-assessment. During the whole decade of the nineties it decreased and turned this service into a huge white elephant where there were millions of dollars lost per year, until the end of 1998 the last repairs of 12 locomotives and 100 wagons could be made, as well as 41 km of track .
ENAFER Peru closed its operations on this route in mid-July 1999 . On September 20, the central railroad passed into the hands of its new owners, and the company led by Juan de Dios Olaechea called Ferrovías Central Andina SA, a company that will have the concession of this route for 30 years.
At the moment ENAFER directs only the train Tacna-Arica.
Ferrovías Central Andino "FVCA"
The hyperinflation and monetary loss of García's first government had led to this means of transportation to irreversible bankruptcy. In 1993 , during the first presidential term of Alberto Fujimori , in a positive attitude, the Cepri-Enafer entity was launched , led by its chairman David San Román , the proposal for a 30-year concession of the railroads operating in Peru. However, after six years of due process, the tender was won by the recent company Juan de Dios Olaechea y Cía , which would take possession of the Central Railroad on July 12 , 1999.. The shareholders that share this privatization are the companies: Mitsui , Buenaventura , RDC , Inversiones Andina, and CDC .
Sections of the Route from the Central Railroad of Peru
This line originally had five sections:
  • Main line Callao - La Oroya 222 km
  • La Oroya - Huancayo 124 km
  • Branch Lima - Ancón 37.3 km abandoned and dismantled in 1965
  • Ticlio-Morococha mining branch 14,3 km
  • Mining branch Cut off-Morococha 18.6 km
  • Final destination: Espinar-Cuzco
Branches of the Central Railroad of Peru
Branch Lima-Ancón
It was part of the old North-West railway that included, Lima - Ancon - Chancay that was inaugurated on December 17 , 1870 . During the war the Ancon - Chancay section was destroyed by the Chileans because it could not be taken entirely to their country. This section passed through the current Pasamayo coil . This section was not reconstructed.
Finally, by virtue of an agreement with the bondholders, the Lima - Ancón section still operative of this line passed to the Peruvian Corporation as a branch of the Central FC. It was suspended its regular traffic in 1958 leaving only the sporadic. It was abandoned in 1965 and the entire line was dismantled.
Ticlio-Morococha Branch
By special concession granted in 1899 to Don José (Giuseppe) Falcone Vignolo , miner of Yauli and Morococha and his brother Juan (Giovanni) Falcone Vignolo , who later transferred to the Peruvian Corporation, this branch was built and given to traffic in 1903 to serve the mineral seat of Morococha.
Branch Cut-Off-Morococha
The Cerro de Pasco Corporation built this branch in 1921 to serve its operations. The place is known as " Cut Off " and is at km 205 of the main line, near Pachachaca . This branch shortened the ore transported from Morococha by several kilometers to the La Oroya smelter, reducing the cost of transport. The branch had 18 km.
Branch La Oroya-Cerro de Pasco
Pachacayo-Chaucha branch
Sections of the Central Railroad of Peru
Section                                   km Altitude (msnm)
Patio y factoría Guadalupe 1 3.00
Patio central 2 3.60
Monserrate 13 150.00
Desamparados                    14 150.00
Vitarte 26           353.00
Santa Clara 29 403.00
Chosica 54 860.00
San Bartolomé                   76 1513.00
Matucana 102 2390.00
Tamboraque 120 3008.00
Rio Blanco                            134 3506.00
Chicla 141          3733.90
Casapalca                            153 4154.00
Chinchán 160 4360.00
Ticlio 171          4758.00
Morococha 14 (ramal)4538.00
Galera 173 4781.00
Yauli 193 4192.00
Arapa 198 4025.00
Mahr Túnel                           196 4025.00
Cut-Off 206 3954.00
La Oroya 222 3726.00
Pachacayo 262 3529.00
Llocllapampa 275       3465.00
Tambo 299       3359.00
Jauja 301       3552.00
Matahuasi 321 3265.00
Concepción 324 3252.00
San Jerónimo                        330 3245.00
Huancayo 346       3261.00
Rolling stock Central Railroad of Peru
The railway has had an impressive number of locomotives during its centuries-old history. The first came in 1870 and were of American origin, almost entirely Rogers brand and a few Danforth. Here some names: El Gigantito, Oroya, Lima, Callao, Cocachacra, Favorita, Groove, Junin, Tarma, Rimac, San Lorenzo, Santo Domingo, San Francisco, Matucana, San Mateo, etc. After 1890 when the Peruvian took the line they were brought more machines USA brand Baldwin and Alco. Only in 1908 NBL of British origin was brought.
Central Railroad of Peru
Central Railroad of Peru Location: Peru
Departments of:
Central Railroad of Peru Description: Long distance train and freight train
Central Railroad of Peru System: Regional railway
Central Railroad of Peru Opening: As February 9 as 1871 (146 years)
Central Railroad of Peru Start: Puerto del Callao Station
Central Railroad of Peru End: 
Central Railroad of Peru Technical Characteristics
Central Railroad of PeruLength: 172 km
Central Railroad of Peru Routes: 1
Central Railroad of Peru Seasons: 3. 4
Central Railroad of Peru Track Width: 1,435 m
Central Railroad of Peru Elevation: 4.818 meters above sea level
Central Railroad of Peru Owner: Ferrovías Central Andina
Central Railroad of Peru State: In service
Central Railroad of Peru Operator: Ferrovías Central Andina
Central Railroad of Peru Route Map
Km      Station                                        Height (msnm)
0   Callao                                                 3
13 Monserrate                                       150
14 Desamparados                                150
29 Santa Clara                                       403
54  Chosica                                             860
66 Túnel de Purhuay
74 Zigzag de Tornamesa
76 San Bartolomé                                 1.513
84 Viaducto de Verrugas o Carrión
91 Surco
       Túnel Balta
102 Matucana                                         2.390
111 Zigzag de Viso (abajo)
       Zigzag de Viso (arriba)
119 Puente Ocatara
120 Tamboraque                                    3.008
125 San Mateo
129 Puente Infiernillo
        Zigzag de Cacray (abajo)
        Cacray (arriba)
134 Río Blanco                                        3.506
141 Chicla                                                3.733
145 Saltacuna
153 Casapalca                                         4.154
160 Chinchán                                          4.360
171 Ticlio4.758
172 Túnel Galera
173 Estación Galera                               4.781
        Morococha                                      4.538
111 Zigzag de Rumichaca (sur)
        Zigzag de Rumichaca (norte)
193 Yauli                                                  4.192
198 Arapa                                                4.025
196 Mahr Túnel                                      4.025
        Cut-Off                                             3.954
222 La Oroya                                          3.726
262 Pachacayo                                       3.529
275 Llocllapampa                                  3.465
299 Tambo                                              3.359
301 Jauja                                                  3.552
       Cerro de Pasco
321 Matahuasi                                        3.265
324 Concepción                                      3.252
330 San Jerónimo de Tunán                 3.245
346 Huancayo                                         3.261

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