Czech Republic Historic RegionsCzech Republic Historic Regions
The Czech lands consist of three historical lands: Bohemia (Cechy), Moravia (Morava) and Czech Silesia (Slezsko).
Although the modern adjective bohemian refers to Bohemia, that usage was based on a broad stereotype and also a poor grasp of geography, so don't expect the Bohemians you meet to be nomadic or anti-conventional artistic/literary bohemians, or to see anything out of Puccini's "La Bohème". And no, "Bohemian Rhapsody" (its lyrics sprinkled with Italian and Arabic) is not a local anthem!
So the word Bohemia/Bohemian came from the name of the Celtic tribe Boii. The term Bohemian had ended up meaning more or less Czech by the end of the 19th century with the awakening of Slavic nationalism. However, it was also used to refer to any inhabitant of Bohemia, including the vast number of Germans that used to inhabit the region until the closing months of World War II.
Czech Moravia and Czech Silesia
Moravia and Bohemia (the other half of the Czech Republic) were among the first regions of continental Europe to undergo an industrial revolution; however Moravia did not experience the mass urbanisation of Bohemia. This region is, therefore, still home to gorgeous vineyards, orchards, fields full of "organic" produce, and filled with scenic mountain vistas and cute little villages. Even the regional capital, Brno, is renowned for its small town charm. There is an extremely extensive rail system, and the region contains historic factories such as Zbrojovka Brno (weapons) and the Bata factory in Zlín (shoes).
The dialects of Czech spoken in Moravia are slightly different from those spoken in Bohemia, particularly in Prague. Moravians pride themselves on their dialect and learning a few stereotypical regionalisms may go down well (or terribly, depending on just what it is you think you're saying and what you end up saying).
The region's strategic location at the Moravian Gate (a pass through the imposing mountain ranges of Central Europe) has led to a confluence of a great amount of history.