Urban Rail Transit in India

Urban Rail Transit in India
Urban rail transit in India consists of suburban rail, rapid transit, monorail, light rail, and tram systems
Suburban Rail
Suburban rail plays a major role in the public transport system of many major Indian cities. Suburban rail is a rail service between a central business district and the suburbs, a conurbation or other locations that draw large numbers of people on a daily basis. The trains are called suburban trains. These trains are also referred to as "local trains" or "locals".
The suburban rail systems in Hyderabad, Pune, Barabanki-Lucknow, Lucknow-Kanpur and Bengaluru do not have dedicated suburban tracks but share tracks with long distance trains. The suburban rail system of Chennai and Mumbai have both dedicated tracks and tracks shared with long distance trains.
The first suburban rail system in India is Mumbai Suburban Railway which started operations in 1853. The Kolkata Suburban Railway has the largest network in the entire country.
Suburban trains that handle commuter traffic are all electric multiple units (EMUs). They usually have nine or twelve coaches, sometimes even fifteen to handle rush hour traffic. One unit of an EMU train consists of one power car and two general coaches. Thus a nine coach EMU is made up of three units having one power car at each end and one at the middle. The rakes in the suburban rails run on 25kV AC.
 Ridership on India's suburban railways has risen from 1.2 million in 1970–71 to 4.4 million in 2012–13. The suburban railways of Mumbai, Kolkata and Chennai account for about 7.1% of the Indian Railways 20819.3  million train kilometres but contribute 53.2% of all railway passengers. In some cities of India, the opening of rapid transit systems have led to a decline in the use of the suburban rail system.
System                                                          City                          State
Mumbai Suburban Railway                      Mumbai                  Maharashtra
Kolkata Suburban Railway                        Kolkata                   West Bengal
Lucknow-Kanpur Suburban Railway       Lucknow Kanpur   Uttar Pradesh
Chennai Suburban Railway                       Chennai                  Tamil Nadu
Delhi Suburban Railway                             Delhi                        Delhi
Pune Suburban Railway                             Pune                        Maharashtra
Hyderabad Multi-Modal                             Hyderabad              Telangana
Transport System
Barabanki-Lucknow Suburban Railway   Barabanki               Uttar Pradesh
Pernem-Karwar Suburban Railway          Goa Karwar             Goa, Karnataka
Bengaluru Commuter Rail                          Bengaluru               Karnataka
Ahmedabad Suburban Railway                 Ahmedabad            Gujarat
Coimbatore Suburban Railway                 Coimbatore              Tamilnadu
Urban Rail Transit in India as Rapid Transit
There are currently 10 operational rapid transit (also called "metro") systems in 9 cities in India. As of September 2016, India has 324 km of operational metro lines. A further 520 km of lines are under construction. Metro rail lines in India are composed of mainly standard gauge. Projects like the Kolkata Metro and Delhi Metro used broad gauge for their earliest lines but all new projects in India are on standard gauge as rolling stock imported is of standard gauge.
The first rapid transit system in India is Kolkata Metro, which started operations in 1984. The Delhi Metro has the largest network in the entire country. And the last metro opened in Lucknow Metro on 5th September 2017.
In 2006, the National Urban Transport Policy proposed the construction of a metro rail system in every city with a population of 20 lakh (2 million). On 11 August 2014, Union Government announced that it would provide financial assistance, for the implementation of a metro rail system, to all Indian cities having a population of more than 1 million.
In May 2015, Union Government approved the Union Urban Development Ministry's proposal to implement metro rail systems in 50 cities. The majority of the planned projects will be implemented through special purpose vehicles, which will be established as 50:50 joint ventures between the Union and respective State Government. The Union Government will invest an estimated ₹5 lakh crore (US$78 billion).
 In new draft policy unveiled in March 2017, the Central Government stated that it wanted State Governments to consider metro rail as the "last option" and implement it only after considering all other possible mass rapid transit systems. The decision was taken due to the high cost of constructing metro rail systems. In August 2017, the Union Government announced that it would not provide financial assistance to new Metro rail project, unless some sort of private partnership is involved.
System                                                       City                      State
Kolkata Metro                                          Kolkata                West Bengal
First mass rapid transit /metro rail system in India and the 17th zone of the Indian Railways.Its First in India to have the Third rail for power supply and the first to use fully Made in India metro coaches by ICF & BEML, First metro in India to run under-water through tunnel line below Hooghly river.
Chennai Mass Rapid Transit System    Chennai            Tamil Nadu
First Indian Railway system to had ballast less tracks. The MRTS to be taken over by the Chennai Metro Rail Limited by 2021.
Delhi Metro                                               Delhi NCR         Delhi, Haryana, Uttar Pardesh
India's first modern rapid transit/Metro system.
Namma Metro                                          Bengaluru         Karnataka
First metro in southern India and also first to have the third rail for power supply in south India & to introduce Wi-Fi onboard trains.
Rapid MetroRail                                       Gurgaon            Gurgaon
India's first fully privately financed metro, and the first metro system in the country to auction naming rights for its stations.
Mumbai Metro                                         Mumbai             Maharashtra
India's first Public Private Partnership (PPP) metro system with Reliance group.
Jaipur Metro                                             Jaipur                 Rajasthan
Double-story elevated road and Metro track project for the first time in the country.
Chennai Metro                                        Chennai              Tamil Nadu
First metro rail in the country to connect two lines {blue & green} through loop line to run direct service from the airport to central even though had interchange station at alandur. First metro in India for underground stations with sliding doors.First Metro service in India to use ALSTOM coaches.
Kochi Metro                                             Kochi                   Kerala
First Indian metro to go live with CBTC signalling. First metro to had QR code based ticket instead of tokens. First metro to had fully made in India Alstom coaches. The first metro in India to have theme based stations.
Lucknow Metro                                       Lucknow             Uttar Pradesh
The fastest built and commissioned metro system in the world. Opened to the public on 5th September 2017.
Hyderabad Metro                                   Hyderabad         Telangana
India's first metro to have CBTC and integrated telecommunications and supervision systems, i.e. driver less metro. It is a Public-Private Partnership with L&T.
Noida Metro                                            Noida                   Uttar Pradesh
Ghaziabad Metro                                   Ghaziabad           Uttar Pradesh, NCR
Navi Mumbai Metro                               Navi Mumbai      Maharashtra
Nagpur Metro                                          Nagpur                Maharashtra
Fastest metro in india to reach at trail stage, Trail run conducted on 30 September 2017
Metro-Link Express for Gandhinagar  Ahmedabad &     Gujarat
and Ahmedabad                                       Gandhinagar
Construction began on 15 March 2015.
Varanasi Metro                                         Varanasi               Uttar Pradesh
DPR approved by Union Cabinet.
Kanpur Metro                                           Kanpur                 Uttar Pradesh
The first phase is expected to be completed by 2019. Construction began on 4 October 2016.
Pune Metro                                             Pune                       Maharashtra
Construction began in May 2017.
Vijayawada Metro                                  Vijayawada            Andhra Pradesh
Patna Metro                                            Patna                      Bihar
DPR approved by State Cabinet in February 2017. Construction is expected to begin by the end of 2017.
Meerut Metro                                         Meerut                    Uttar Pradesh
DPR submitted to state government.
Guwahati Metro                                    Guwahati                  Assam
DPR approved by State Cabinet.
Chandigarh Metro                                 Chandigarh Tricity   Punjab
DPR already prepared and submitted.
Bhopal Metro                                        Bhopal                       Madhya Pradesh
DPR approved by State Cabinet.
Kozhikode Light Metro                        Kozhikode                 Kerala
DPR approved and submitted by DMRC on October 2014, awaiting cabinet approval.
Indore Metro                                        Indore                         Madhya Pradesh
DPR approved by State Cabinet.
Thiruvananthapuram                         Thiruvananthapuram  Kerala
Light Metro
DPR approved and submitted by DMRC; awaiting cabinet approval.
Agra Metro                                           Agra                            Uttar Pradesh
DPR submitted to state government.
Coimbatore Metro                             Coimbatore                Tamil nadu
DPR being prepared. Construction to begin in next financial year.
Visakhapatnam Metro                      Visakhapatnam          Andhra Pradesh
Construction of Phase-1 to be completed by December 2018. DPR prepared and to be submitted.
Dehradun Metro                                Dehradun-Rishikesh  Uttarakand
DPR being prepared.
Surat Metro                                         Surat                           Gujarat
DPR being prepared.
Srinagar Metro                                   Srinagar                      Jammu & Kashmir
DPR being prepared.
Greater Gwalior Metro                    Gwalior                        Madhya Pradesh
DPR being prepared.
Jabalpur Metro                                  Jabalpur                       Madhya Pradesh
DPR being prepared.
Greater Nashik Metro                      Nasik                            Maharashtra
Proposed Metro line which will connect Igatpuri, Deolali, Nashik Road, Nasik Central and Ozar Airport.
Western Railway                              Mumbai                        Maharashtra
Elevated Corridor
Rejected because of infeasibility.
Urban Rail Transit in India by Monorail
The Mumbai Monorail, which opened on 2 February 2014 is the first operational monorail system used for rapid transit in independent India. Many other Indian cities have monorail projects, as a feeder system to the metro, in different phases of planning.
White background In service
System                                            City                                State
Mumbai Monorail                        Mumbai                         Maharashtra
Chennai Monorail                       Chennai                          Tamil Nadu
Centre approved Chennai monorail project, to be implemented under DBFOT model.
Kolkata Monorail                        Kolkata
Allahabad Monorail                   Allahabad
Bengaluru Monorail                   Bengaluru
Delhi Monorail                            Delhi
Indore Monorail                          Indore
Kanpur Monorail                        Kanpur
Navi Mumbai Monorail             Navi Mumbai
Patna Monorail                           Patna
Pune Monorail                            Pune
Ahmedabad Monorail               Ahmedabad
Aizawl Monorail                          Aizawl
Bhubaneswar Monorail            Bhubaneswar
Jodhpur Monorail                       Jodhpur
Kota Monorail                             Kota
Nagpur Monorail                        Nagpur
DPR is being prepared.
Nashik Monorail                         Nashik
DPR is being prepared.
Urban Rail Transit in India Light Rail
Like monorail, light rail is also considered as a feeder system for the Metro systems. Two light rail projects have been proposed respectively in Delhi and Kolkata. There would be a total number of 68 stations of light rail in India.
System                                          City                                   State
Kolkata Light Rail Transit         Kolkata                              West Bengal
Would be first LRTS in India.
Delhi Light Rail Transit             Delhi                                   Delhi
Kozhikode Light Metro             Kozhikode                         Kerala
Thiruvananthapuram               Thiruvananthapuram     Kerala
Light Metro
Urban Rail Transit in India Tram
The British rule in India saw trams in addition to trains, being introduced in many cities. The Trams in Kolkata is currently the only tram system in the country and provides an emission-free means of transport in Kolkata while the other tram systems in India were phased out. The nationalised Calcutta Tramways Company is in the process of upgrading the existing tramway network at a cost of ₹240 million (US$3.7 million).
Metro Coach Factories in India
There are three metro rolling stock manufacturers in India. Bharat Earth Movers is the only Indian rolling stock manufacturer. The other manufacturers are the Indian subsidiaries of Canadian firm Bombardier and French company Alstom. Under the Union Government's Make in India program, 75% of the rolling stock procured for use on Indian metro systems are required to be manufactured in India.
Bharat Earth Movers
Bharat Earth Movers manufactures of Rolling Stock consortium with Hyundai Mitsubishi Rotem.
Delhi Metro           – 200 coaches
Namma Metro      – 150 coaches
Jaipur Metro          – 40 coaches
Hyderabad Metro – 171 coaches
Kolkata Metro       – 84 coaches
Bombardier built a £26m factory in Savli, Gujarat after it won a contract to supply 614 cars to the Delhi Metro. Production at Savli began in June 2009. In June 2012, the plant won an order to supply semi-finished bogies to Australia.
Alstom India
In 2013, Alstom built a factory in Sri City, Andhra Pradesh after it won a €243 million contract to supply 168 cars to the Chennai Metro. The 156-acre plant will be used to supply trains to cities in India and abroad.
Chennai Metro  – 168 coaches
Lucknow Metro – 80 coaches
Kochi Metro       – 75 coaches
Other Coach Manufacturers India
Chinese firm CRRC is planning to set up a manufacturing plant in Nagpur, Maharashtra
Urban Rail Transit in India Legislation
The subject of Railways is in the Union List of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution, giving Parliament the exclusive power to enact legislation concerning it. According to former Minister of Urban Development Kamal Nath, "Since the Metro rail is a central subject, it has been decided that all such projects in the country, whether within one municipal area or beyond, shall be taken up under the Central Metro Acts."
Construction of metros in India is governed by the centrally enacted The Metro Railways (Construction of Works) Act, 1978 which defines itself as an act to provide for the construction of works relating to metro railways in the metropolitan cities and for matters connected therewith. Operation and maintenance of metros are governed by The Delhi Metro Railway (Operation and Maintenance) Act, 2002. Both laws were amended in 2009 with the passing of The Metro Railways (Amendment) Act, 2009. The amendment expanded the coverage of both the acts to all metropolitan areas of India.

Initially, state governments attempted to implement metro rail projects through various Tramways Act. However, the Commissioner of Railways Safety (CRS), who operates under the Ministry of Civil Aviation, is tasked with providing safety certification for metro rail projects. The CRS refused safety certification unless the projects were implemented under a Metro Act enacted by the state government and published in The Gazette of India. Research Design and Standards Organization (RDSO), another railway entity, also refused certification to projects not implemented under the criteria. Subsequently, several state governments have enacted their own Metro Acts.


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