Turkey Rail Pass - Turkey Rail Passes
Turkey Rail Pass - Turkish Rail Passes
Turkey or Türkiye means "land of the Turks" it is officially the Republic of Turkey or Türkiye Cumhuriyeti. It is a transcontinental country located mainly on Anatolia in Western Asia, with a portion on the Balkans in Southeast Europe. It shares borders with Greece and Bulgaria to the northwest, the Black Sea to the north. Georgia to the northeast. Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Iran to the east. Iraq to the southeast. Syria and the Mediterranean Sea to the south and the Aegean Sea to the west. Cyprus is located off the south coast. Turks form the vast majority of the nation's population and Kurds are the largest minority. Ankara is capital, while Istanbul is its largest city and financial centre. Istanbul is 50% in Europe and 50% Asia. You can walk a bridge and walk into Asia, or simply take a Istanbul ferry. Istanbul is the tenth most visited city in the world with 13,433,000 annual visitors as of 2018 and with the annual growth rate of 25.2%. Istanbul expects 1 million tourists from cruise companies after the renovation of its cruise port, also known as Galataport in Karaköy district. Metro Istanbul is the largest metro network in the country with 495 million annual ridership. There are 8 metro lines under service and 5 more under construction.
Explore Turkey, home to Istanbul, where ancient mosques, palaces, and bazaars reflect its diverse history. Continue your journey to Antalya, where its shoreline is known as the Turkish Riviera, highlighted by some of the cleanest beaches in the Mediterranean. The Aegean Coast is another attraction, where the remains of ancient cities, including Troy, are found.
The State Railways of the Republic of Turkey or Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Devlet Demiryolları, abbreviated as TCDD, is a government-owned national railway company responsible with the ownership and maintenance of railway infrastructure in , as well as the planning and construction of new lines. TCDD was formed on 4 June 1929 as part of the nationalisation of railways in .
The Turkish State Railways own and maintain all public railways in . This includes railway stations, ports, bridges and tunnels, yards and maintenance facilities. In 2016, TCDD controlled an active network of 12,532 km (7,787 mi) of railways, making it the 22nd-largest railway system in the world. Apart from railway infrastructure, TCDD also owns several rail transport companies within as well as a 50% share of the İzmir-area commuter rail system, İZBAN.
High-speed rail in began service in 2009. TCDD has branded its high-speed service as Yüksek Hızlı Tren or YHT. YHT currently operates on two lines: the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway and the Ankara-Konya high-speed railway. They had previously tried accelerated train, i.e. higher speed rail without necessary upgrades.
On 13 March 2009, the first phase of the Ankara-Istanbul high-speed railway entered service between Ankara and Eskişehir. The YHT service between Ankara and the Pendik railway station in Istanbul's Asian side began on 27 July 2014. The train has 6 daily departures in both directions. On 23 August 2011, the YHT service on the Ankara-Konya high-speed railway was inaugurated.
High-speed rail in is still developing, with two lines under construction and many more planned. Once the line to İstanbul is completed, travel between Ankara and İstanbul will drop to 3 and a half hours, compared to 5 hours by car. By 2023, the Ministry of Transport expects high-speed rail system to increase to 10,000 kilometers.
Turkish Mainline Services
Mainline service or Anahat is the railway's main service. In 2010 mainline services made up for 24% of the railways passenger traffic. Mainline service includes 3 types of trains: Express Train, Blue Train and Passenger.
Express train service is between major cities and are fast, comfortable and equipped with modern air conditioned TVS2000 railcars and only stop at important stations. Express trains have an average operating speed of 100 km/h (62 mph) to 120 km/h (75 mph). The most used express service is between İstanbul and Eskişehir with 8 trains daily in each direction. Express service also has overnight trains between major cities far apart (e.g. İstanbul-Kars). These trains have coaches, a dining car and a sleeping car or a couchette car or sometimes both.
The TVS2000 railcars used on mainline service are the most comfortable cars in TCDD's entire fleet. TVS2000 railcars may also be used on International service because international services are considered mainline services within .
Haydarpaşa station or Haydarpaşa Garı is a railway station in Istanbul. Until 2012 the station was a major intercity, regional and commuter rail hub as well as the busiest railway station in . Haydarpaşa, along with Sirkeci station (on the other side of the Bosphorus), are Istanbul's two intercity and commuter railway terminals. As of 19 June 2013 all train service to the station has been indefinitely suspended due to the rehabilitation of the existing line for the new Marmaray commuter rail line. The station building still houses the headquarters for District 1 of the State Railways.
Sirkeci Railway Station
Sirkeci railway station or Sirkeci garı, listed on maps as Istanbul railway station it is a major railway terminal in Istanbul. The terminal is located on the tip of Istanbul's historic peninsula right next to the Golden Horn and just northwest of Gülhane Park and the Topkapı Palace. Sirkeci Terminal, along with Haydarpaşa Terminal on the other side of the Bosphorus, are Istanbul's two intercity and commuter railway terminals. Built in 1890 by the Oriental Railway as the eastern terminus of the world-famous Orient Express, Sirkeci Terminal has become a symbol of the city. In 2013, a new underground station opened to the public and is currently serviced by Marmaray trains travelling across the Bosphorus. Sirkeci Terminal has a total of 4 platforms (3 above, 1 underground) with 7 tracks (5 above, 2 underground). Formerly, commuter trains to Halkalı would depart from tracks 2, 3 and 4 while regional trains to Kapıkule, Edirne and Uzunköprü along with international trains to Bucharest, Sofia and Belgrade would depart from tracks 1 and 5.
Ports and berthing facilities in are owned and operated by three different groups, state owned companies, municipalities and private companies. Major ports are owned and operated by the Turkish State Railways (TCDD) or Turkish Maritime Organization (TDİ), which are so-called State Economic Enterprises (Kamu İktisadi Teşebbüsü or KİT). However, some of these ports are already privatized and some others, which all belong to the TCDD, are within the ongoing privatization process. Municipality owned ports are comparatively smaller. Limited to a small volume of coastal traffic, they serve the local needs of provincial towns
Turkish Port Cities
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