British Rail - British Rail Transport Act 1968 - C

British Rail - C
British Rail Transport Act 1968
Following the election of Labour in 1964, on a platform of revising many of the cuts, Tom Fraser instead authorised the closure 1,071 mi of railway lines, following the recommendations from the Beeching Report even lines not considered closing. After he resigned in 1967, his replacement Barbara Castle continued the line and station closures but introduced the first Government rail subsidies for socially necessary but unprofitable railways in the Transport Act 1968.
Part of these provisions was the creation of a passenger transport executive or PTE within larger metropolitan areas. Prior to this, public transport was run by individual local authorities and private companies, with little co-ordination. The PTEs took over the responsibility (but not ownership) of managing local rail networks.
The 1968 Act created five new bodies. These were:
  • West Midlands PTE on 1 October 1969.
  • SELNEC PTE (South East Lancashire & North East Cheshire) on 1 November 1969 (now Greater Manchester).
  • Merseyside PTE on 1 December 1969 (now Liverpool City Region).
  • Tyneside PTE on 1 January 1970 (now Tyne and Wear).
  • Greater Glasgow PTE on 1 June 1973 (now Strathclyde).
This was the first real subdivision of BR since its inception in 1949, and likely saved many lines earmarked for closure, notably the Liverpool, Crosby and Southport Railway, which now forms part of the Merseyrail network.
British Rail Sectorisation
Upon sectorisation in 1982, three passenger sectors were created: InterCity, operating principal express services, London & South East (renamed Network SouthEast in 1986) operating commuter services in the London area, Provincial (renamed Regional Railways in 1989) responsible for all other passenger services.
In the metropolitan counties local services were managed by the Passenger Transport Executives.
Provincial was the most subsidised (per passenger km) of the three sectors, upon formation, its costs were four times its revenue. During the 1980s British Rail ran the Rail Riders membership club aimed at 5- to 15-year-olds.
Because British Railways was such a large operation, running not just railways but also ferries, steamships and hotels, it has been considered difficult to analyse the effects of nationalisation.
Prices rose quickly in this period, rising 108% in real terms from 1979 to 1994, as prices rose by 262% but RPI only increased by 154% in the same time.
British Rail Overview
British Rail Type: State-owned enterprise
British Rail Industry: Railway transport, logistics, shipping, and manufacturing of rolling stock
British Rail Predecessor:
Great Western Railway
London, Midland & Scottish Railway
London & North Eastern Railway
Southern Railway
British Rail Founded: 1 January 1948
British Rail Defunct: 20 November 1997
British Rail Fate: Privatised
British Rail Successor:
National Rail
Train Operating Franchises:
British Rail Headquarters: London, England
British Rail Area Served: Great Britain
British Rail Key People: Alastair Morton
(Final Chairman of the British Railways Board)
British Rail Products: Rail transport, cargo transport, services
British Rail Owner: Government of the United Kingdom
British Rail Parent:
British Transport Commission
British Railways Board
British Rail Divisions:
From 1948:
Eastern Region
London Midland Region
North Eastern Region
Scottish Region
Southern Region
Western Region
British Rail Research Division
Collection & Delivery
Night Star Parcels
Rail Express Parcels
Red Star Parcels
From 1982:
Network SouthEast
Railfreight Distribution
Rail Express Systems
Regional Railways
Trainload Freight
British Rail Subsidiaries:
British Rail Engineering Ltd
British Transport Hotels
European Passenger Services
Travellers Fare
Rail Holidays
Rail Vacations
Luxury Trains
Luxury Tours
International Trains
International Tours
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